Tossa jute is softer and silkier and more lustrous than white jute. Years of selective breeding have produced many different varieties. Up to the mid 1980s the old Soviet Union was the largest producer, much of it being cultivated in the Ukraine and the parts of Russia close to Poland. Hemp fabric is similar to linen in both hand and appearance. Therefore, it is imperative to develop ecofriendly methods for coir extraction from coconut husks. The second best option is cutting the plant stalks very close to ground level. Simply put, retting is a plant fibre-extraction process in which fibre-rich plants are made subject to decomposition via heavily exposing it to moisture which promotes microbial activity. Ramie is the longest of the vegetable fibres and has exceptional strength. Chemical retting involves immersion of the dried plants in a tank with a solution of chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, high pH agents, pectinolytic enzymes or mineral acids. The world’s premier institute for the development of hemp is still situated in The Ukraine where it develops new varieties with improved fibre content, increased yield and low THC. Bamboo is also extremely efficient at minimising CO2 and generates up to 35% more oxygen than equivalent stands of trees. The process for this separation is called retting. Flax and ramie strands, however, are usually separated into individual fibre cells, or true plant fibres. Indica is the variety grown for both recreational and medical drug use. • The microorganisms, mostly bacteria from retting water enter the plant tissues through the stomata, epidermis and cambium or the cut end, when immersed in retting tank, and through their enzymatic action loosens the fibre strands from the woody core. There are over 1600 species of bamboo found in diverse climates from cold mountains to hot tropical regions. Flax processing is, however labour intensive, requiring skilled workers. 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The production of hemp in Western countries is growing steadily to meet the growing interest in sustainable textiles. Plantation-grown kenaf is capable of growing from seedlings to 5 m at maturity in five months. ting. Sustainable land use practices that provide both economic and environmental advantages and are of global importance as the world’s six billion people compete for water, food, fibre and shelter, the high yield per hectare of bamboo becomes a very significant advantage. India produces a variety of hemp known as Sunn or Bombay Hemp. Linen, or flax is the most luxurious of all the bast fibres and has a very specific tactile appeal; it is smooth and lustrous to both the eye and hand, the fibre is almost silky in texture, yet embodies a springy freshness. Along with flax, this fast-growing plant is now the basis for a new textile woven on conventional cotton-machinery, called CRAILAR� Organic Fibres. This step is … Currently dew retting is the dominant and most desirable method from a sustainability perspective. The lipopolysaccharides of tail fibres act as receptor in phages. The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. Water retting gives a more uniform quality product. Nettle fibres are white, smooth, and up to 50mm (2”) long, and can produce a finer and silkier fabric than flax. The crops grow quickly and around 100 days after harvesting the soil is left in better condition as it has been replenished with nutrients and nitrogen. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. Your email address will not be published. For field retting a classification of the microbial evolution (by gene sequencing) and enzyme profiles were conducted. This versatile fibre is also used for paper, film, composite materials and geotextiles in environmental engineering. It takes 2–4 weeks for dam retting. Natural retting is considered to be impractical for modern industrial purposes, but this low technology will always be appropriate somewhere, and never completely obsolete. Hemp fabric withstands water better than any other textile product. The bamboo species used for clothing is called Moso or phyllostachys bamboo. Dew Linen absorbs dye well, especially natural dyes and does not require chemical treatments. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem Example:Jute is associated with the process of Retting. The finest qualities of hemp for fabric are now produced in Italy. It also greatly reduces rain run-off. Very little bamboo is irrigated and there is sound evidence that the water-use efficiency of bamboo is twice that of other trees. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium. This makes bamboo more able to handle harsh weather conditions such as drought, flood and high temperatures. Not all bacteria isolated fromretted jute are responsible for theprocess, as for instance, seven species of aerobic bacteria were isolated fromretted jute but only oneof them, B. poly- … In tanks with warm water, the time is reduced to a few days. Water-retting traditionally depends upon anaerobic bacteria that live in lakes, rivers, ponds, and vats to produce pectinases and other enzymes to ret flax. Retting permits separation of the fibre bundles, and individual fibres, from the vegetal skin and the woody core cells. This is a labour-intensive process and is used to produce bamboo ‘linen’. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh and some in India, mainly Bengal. 2. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. It is an ideal candidate for sustainable ecological cultivation, as it only requires the minimum use of pesticides and fertilizers. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. These include linseed oil for linoleum, soap, fuel and cattle feed. The process of employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so as to facilitate the separation of the fibre from the stem. This regular harvesting is of benefit to the health of the plant and studies have shown that cutting of bamboo canes leads to vigorous re-growth and an increase in the amount of biomass the following year. Natural retting of coconut husks by native bacteria results in the release of toxic phenols delaying the extraction of the fibre and lowering the pH of the environmental waters detrimental to aquatic life. explained in more detail below, hemp fibres are classically separated from the plant stems by “water retting”, which in essence is a microbial process. It contributes to the construction and automotive industries as well as the health food and cosmetics industries. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as, It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. This restriction has hampered its use as a modern commercially viable raw material. Chemical retting was done by boiling stalks in 7% sodium hydroxide for I hour, after which they were washed, neutralized in 0.2% acetic acid. Yields of bamboo of up to 60 tonnes per hectare greatly exceed the yield of 20 tonnes for most trees and only 1-2 tonnes per hectare for cotton with a one-time planting for bamboo and little care and maintenance needed. The beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. It holds its shape well and does not wrinkle easily. 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